Inverzija (Inversion)

Inverzija (Inversion)

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Inverzija (inversion) u engleskom jeziku se, u principu, odnosi na sledeće gramatičke operacije:

- upotreba upitnog oblika glavnog glagola;
- promena "standardnih" pozicija seubjekta i predikata.
* Naročito treba obratiti pažnju na ustaljene parove (npr. neither-nor) koje je potrebno naučiti. Primeri nekih parova su dati kao primeri dalje u tekstu.

Primeri će biti organizovani kao reprezentativni primeri, drugi primeri (bez mnogo formatiranja) i bonus primeri (označeni zvezdicom * )


Primer1: He failed to report the accident and later denied that he had been driving the car.
Inverz.: Not only did he fail to report the accident, but also later denied that he had been driving the car.

Primer2: I have never enjoyed myself more.
Inverz.: Never have I enjoyed myself more!

Primer3: Do not plan to hire a car, unless you have an international driving licence.
Inverz.: Only if you have an international driving licence should you plan to hire a car.


Inverzije se mogu koristiti kada se u pitanju striktno formalna komunikacija ili u političkom govoru:

I have never heard a weaker excuse! (informal)
Never have I heard a weaker excuse! (formal)


Neke osnovne varijacije su predstavljene primerima i numerisane:



(1) ONLY AFTER ............. DID

Primer: They dusted the snow off the car and they set off on their journey.
Inverz.: Only after dusted (ili having dusted) the snow off the car did they set off on their journey.

* Only after posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a stamp.



(2) ONLY AFTER ............. SHOULD

Primer: You sholud never leave for the airport before confirming your flight.
Inverz.: Only after confirming your flight should you leave for the airport.



(3) SO ............. THAT

Primer1: Džentlmen treats everybody so badly that even his two dogs avoid him.
Inverz.: So badly does Džeki treat everybody that even his two dogs avoid him.

Primer2: The town was so busy, we returned to the hotel.
Inverz.: So busy was the town that we returned to the hotel.

* So devastating were the floods that some areas may never recover.
* So hard did ThePhilosopher work that Peca gave him a promotion Mr. Green



(4) SUCH ............. THAT

Primer1: It was such a lovely resort that I spent the whole two weeks there.
Inverz.: Such a lovely resort was it, that I spent the whole two weeks there.

* Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted.



(5) LITTLE ............. THAT

Primer1: Jelkica7 had no idea that the museum tickets would be too expensive.
Inverz.: Little did she know that the museum tickets would be so expensive.

* Little does the government appreciate what the results will be.



(6) NO SOONER ............. THAN

Primer1: He had scarcely entered the house when his dog jumped on him.
Inverz.: No sooner had he entered the house than his dog jumped on him. ( * tek što je...)

Primer2: As soon as he started down the hill, his ski (zabranjeno)ed.
Inverz.: No sooner had he started down the hill than his ski (zabranjeno)ed. ( * tek što je...)

Primer: As soon as the moderator deleted his post, Aca started to cry.
Inverz: No sooner had the moderator deleted his post, than Aca started to cry.

Idea Obično ide No sooner + past perfect.



(7) NEITHER ............. NOR

Primer: Einmana didn't go to Burek; she didn't go to Krstarica either.
Inverz.: Einmana neither went to Burek nor to Krstarica.

Primer: Peca didn't go to the office; he didn't phone in either.
Inverzija: Peca neither went to the office nor did he phone in.

Idea Neither, nor i so se mogu koristiti kod eho pitanja:
A: I am going home.
B: So am I.

A: I don't like meat.
B: Neither/Nor do I.



(8) Ostale fraze koje uključuju negaciju: NO ili NOT:
[b][under no circumstances] [on no account] [at no time] [in no way] [on no condition] [not until] [not unless] [not only...but also]
.


Primer1: You are not allowed to leave work early for any reason.
Inverz.: Under no circumstances are you allowed to leave work early.

Primer2: You should remember to carry a basic first aid box with you.
Inverz.: Under no circumstances should you forget to carry a basic first aid box with you.

Primer: This switch must not be touched on any account.
Inverzija: On no account must this switch be touched.

Primer: Never go on holiday before taking out travel insurance!
Inverzija: Not until you have taken out travel insurance, should you go on holiday

Primer: Always carry a phrase book with you.
Inverzija: At no time should you be without a phrase book.

Primer: Ships are often late due to the weather, so do not use them if your time is limited.
Inverzija: Not unless you have plenty of time should you use a ship.

* On no condition are they to open fire without a warning.
* Not until I got home did I notice that I had the wrong umbrella.



(9) Upotreba sa vremenskim odrednicama:
[never] [rarely] [seldom] [hardly] [barely] [scarcely] [no sooner]


Primer1: Srki seldom goes out during the week.
Inverz.: Rarely does Srki go out during the week.

Primer2: If you are driving in a foreign country, you sholud make sure you know the national highway code.
Inverz.: Never should you drive in a foreign country without knowing the national highway code.


* Never had I had so much responsibility.
* Rarely can a minister have been faced with such a problem.
* Seldom has the team given a worse performance.
* Hardly had the train left the station, when there was an explosion.
* Scarcely had I entered the room when the phone rang.
* Barely had I reached the door than I realised it was locked.
* No sooner was the team back on the pitch than it started raining.



(10) Upotreba inverzije kod kondicionala

- Ukoliko želimo da komunikacija bude striktno formalna
- Ukoliko želimo da naglasimo da je ishod manje verovatan

Idea Uočimo eliminaciju termina IF u primerima.

Primer: If they were to escape, there would be an outcry.
Inverzija: Were they to escape, there would be an outcry.

Primer: If the police had found out, I would have been in trouble.
Inverzija: Were the police to have found out, I would have been in trouble.

Primer: If you should hear anything, let me know.
Inverzija: Should you hear anything, let me know.

Primer: You'll be first to know if there is a change in our plans.
Inverzija: Should our plans change, you'll be the first to know.

Primer: If he has cheated, he will have to be punished.
Inverzija: Should he have cheated, he will have to be punished.



(11) Inverzija sa: AS

Ovakva konstrukcija je vrlo česta u pismenoj formi ili formalnoj komunikaciji:

Primer1: We were short of money, as were most people in our neighbourhood.
Primer2: I thought, as did my colleagues, that the recession would soon be over.




BONUS - još malo primera:

Primer: Do not forget to order traveller's cheques early in order to receive them on time.
Inverzija: Only when you order traveller's cheques early, will you receive them on time.


* ova sekcija će biti dopunjavana kako budem nailazio na zanimljive primere.



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Нашао сам две занимљиве реченице.
It's too nice an afternoon to stay at home.
You are much too kind to me.



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Gde je tu inverzija? Smile

Ako ima inverzije, kako bi išla normalna forma? Smile

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Очигледно сам помешао ову тему са темом Занимљиве конструкције. Mr. Green

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Ok,objavi onda tamo Smile

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