The Passive Voice (Pasiv)

The Passive Voice (Pasiv)

offline
  • Pridružio: 02 Sep 2010
  • Poruke: 488

[1] Uvod

Idea Glagoli imaju dva stanja:
a) aktiv (radno stanje),
b) pasiv (trpno stanje).
Pasiv (passive voice), dakle, ne predstavlja vreme, već trpno stanje – određenu radnju subjekat ne vrši aktivno, već subjekat trpi radnju.

Ako subjekat rečenice vrši radnju, glagol je u aktivu.
Mcrule plays basketball every day.

Ako subjekat rečenice trpi radnju, glagol je u pasivu.
Basketball is played every day (by Mcrule).

Pasiv u osnovi ima latinsku reč passivus, što označava nekog/nešto što trpi, odnosno pati.


[2] Način građenja

The Philosopher - moderates - the forum.
(subjekat – vrši radnju) - (predikat) - (objekat – trpi radnju)

The forum - is moderated - by The Philosopher.
(subjekat – trpi radnju) - (predikat) - (objekat – vrši radnju)

Objekat aktivne rečenice (the forum) postaje subjekat pasivne rečenice.
Gradi se od odgovarajućeg vremena od glagola to be i prošlog participa glavnog glagola.
„Odgovarajuće vreme“ glagola to be je konzistentno sa vrstom vremena koje se koristi u aktivnoj rečenici.
Gore, u primeru, glagol aktiva je bio u sadašnjem prostom vremenu, moderates, pa je zbog toga u oblik u pasivu is played.

Pregled pasivnih vremena u potvrdnom, upitnom i odričnom obliku je prikazan u sledećoj tabeli:



Sada ćemo se posvetiti svim glagolskim vremenima, kao i modalnim glagolima, koja imaju pasivni oblik.

[1] Sadašnja vremena

Sadašnje prosto vreme (Present Simple)

Aktiv: Novak plays tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis is played (by Novak).

Sadašnje trajno vreme (Present Continuous)

Aktiv: Novak is playing tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis is being played (by Novak).

Sadašnje složeno vreme (Present Perfect Simple)

Aktiv: Novak has played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis has been played (by Novak).

[2] Prošla vremena

Prošlo prosto vreme (Past Simple)

Aktiv: Novak played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis was played (by Novak).

Prošlo trajno vreme (Past Continuous)

Aktiv: Novak was playing tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis was being played (by Novak).

Prošlo složeno vreme (Past Perfect Simple)

Aktiv: Novak had played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis had been played (by Novak).

[3] Buduća vremena

Prosto buduće vreme (Future Simple)

Aktiv: Novak will play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis will be played (by Novak).

Složeno buduće vreme(Future Perfect)

Aktiv: Novak will have played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis will have been played (by Novak).

[4] Modalni glagoli

Can

Aktiv: Novak can play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis can be played (by Novak).

May

Aktiv: Novak may play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis may be played (by Novak).

Might

Aktiv: Novak might play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis might be played (by Novak).

Would

Aktiv: Novak would play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis would be played (by Novak.)

Should

Aktiv: Novak should play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis should be played (by Novak).

Must

Aktiv: Novak must play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis must be played (by Novak).

Ought to

Aktiv: Novak ought to play tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis ought to be played (by Novak).

May have

Aktiv: Novak may have played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis may have been played (by Novak).

Might have

Aktiv: Novak might have played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis might have been played (by Novak).

Would have

Aktiv: Novak would have played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis would have been played (by Novak).

Should have

Aktiv: Novak should have played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis should have been played (by Novak).

Must have

Aktiv: Novak must have played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis must have been played (by Novak).

Ought to have

Aktiv: Novak ought to have played tennis.
Pasiv: Tennis ought to have been played (by Novak).

Exclamation Sledeća vremena nemaju pasivni oblik:

– Sadašnje trajno složeno vreme (Present Perfect Continuous),
– Prošlo trajno složeno vreme (Past Perfect Continuous),
– Trajno buduće vreme (Future Continuous),
– Složeno trajno buduće vreme (Future Perfect Continuous).

Takođe, pasivni oblik mogu imati samo prelazni glagoli,
tj. oni glagoli uz koje može stajati objekat:


Rečenica sa prelaznim glagolom: I am watching a film. (Film je objekat.)
Rečenica sa neprelaznim glagolom: I am sleeping. (Nema objekta.)


[3] Upotreba

Pasiv se koristi:

1. Kada je vršilac radnje nepoznat.
He was murdered last night.
(On je sinoć ubijen.)

2. Kada je očigledno ili nije važno ko je vršilac radnje.
The children will be driven to school.
(Deca će biti odvezena u školu.)

3. Kada ne želimo da spomenemo vršioca radnje.
The teacher said that mistakes were made.
(Nastavnica je rekla da se grešilo.)

4. Kada želimo da istaknemo vršioca radnje.
This forum was made by Peca.
(Peca je napravio ovaj forum.)

5. Kada generalno govorimo o nečemu:
English is spoken widely in Serbia.
(Engleski se uveliko govori u Srbiji.)



Pripremili:
ThePhilosopher i Inception



Registruj se da bi učestvovao u diskusiji. Registrovanim korisnicima se NE prikazuju reklame unutar poruka.
Ko je trenutno na forumu
 

Ukupno su 616 korisnika na forumu :: 50 registrovanih, 7 sakrivenih i 559 gosta   ::   [ Administrator ] [ Supermoderator ] [ Moderator ] :: Detaljnije

Najviše korisnika na forumu ikad bilo je 1567 - dana 15 Jul 2016 19:18

Korisnici koji su trenutno na forumu:
Korisnici trenutno na forumu: 11neco11, _Petar, A.R.Chafee.Jr., aramis s, Arhiv, Atomski čoban, bojank2, Boris90, Bude Pusonjic, cvrle312, darkstar101, Davor Kondic, Drug pukovnik, Dzoni Stek, Georgius, goran.vvv, GreenMan, havoc995, imperator10, indja2, ivance95, Koca Popovic, Kos93, KUZMAR, ladro, ljuba.b, Marko Marković2, MarkoRapic, mačković, mgaji21, Mikulino, Mirage 2000N, nenad812, nuke92, Oluj2.1, Outis, pedja63, petkovic56, powSrb, RADOVAN.S, renoje2, S-lash, sasa.zoric, Ssssssss, Toni, vasa.93, vespa nikola, vlvl, zax22r, |_MeD_|