Present Participle and Gerund (Infinitive + ING)

Present Participle and Gerund (Infinitive + ING)

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Idea Ove konstrukcije se formiraju od infinitiva + nastavka ING.


Arrow U engleskom jeziku ove konstrukcije mogu biti: Present Participle ili Gerund.

Neformalno ih jasno možemo razlučiti na sledeći način:
- ukoliko ING konstrukcija predstavlja "više imenicu", obično je u pitanju gerund
- ukoliko ING konstrukcija više liči na pridev ili glagol, u pitanju je particip prezenta

Fishing is fun. (Gerund)
Anthony is fishing. (Present Participle)
I have a boring teacher. (Present Participle)





[1] Particip prezenta



Primeri:

I am writing an article.
// ovde "writing" predstavlja deo trajnog oblika glagola

In our phone interview she told me her amazing story.
// koristi se kao pridev

Dictionary.com:

Citat:amazing, adjective
--> causing great surprise or sudden wonder.


And when I could not reach mercy, mercy came running to me.
// ovde je "running" deo konstrukcije glagol + particip prezenta (često se koristi kod glagola pokreta)

I want to go swimming but I'm on my period. smešak
// "to go" + Present Participle je česta konstrukcija

I was just walking and then I heard someone calling for help from this sewerage.
// konstrukcija: glagol + objekat + Present Participle (vrlo često kod glagola percepcije: see, hear, smell...)




[2] Gerund



Primeri:

Flying makes me nervous.
// subjekat rečenice

She is good at painting.
// upotrebljava se nakon predloga (at, without, on, by, after, against)

There's no point in waiting.
// koristi se nakon izvesnih izraza koji se završavaju sa predlogom (no point in, in spite of, ...)

I look forward to hearing from you soon.
// koristi se kod frazalnih glagola (to look forward to, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, to keep on)

Idea Napomena: neki frazalni glagoli se završavaju sa "to" i to treba shvatiti kao predlog, a ne kao deo infinitiva! Ovi oblici su: look forward to, take to, be accustomed to, be used to. Dakle, "I am used to waiting for buses", "She didn't really take to studying English" i slično.

Driving School helps thousands pass their test with comprehensive driving lessons from expert driving instructors
// složene imenice (složenice): driving lesson, a swimming pool, i sl.

She couldn't help falling in love with him.
// nakon određenih izraza (can't help, can't stand, it's no use, it's no good, be worth)

Higuy notices that a building in Belgrade appears to start leaning.
The building eventually collapses onto the busy street below.

//imenica

Dictionary.com:
Citat:building, noun
--> a relatively permanent enclosed construction over a plot of land, having a roof and usually windows and often more than one level, used for any of a wide variety of activities, as living, entertaining, or manufacturing.


He is fond of typing quickly
// iza njega može stajati prilog:

I don't like trolling MyCity books.
// iza njega može stajati objekt

A.L's being lazy makes me nervous.
// pred njim može stajati genitiv




[X] Ostale specifične konstrukcije



If I catch you spamming the forum again, I'll ban you!
// "catch" + particip prezenta označava pretnju

They went out to the cinema. They laughed as they went.
--> They went laughing to the cinema.

// ako se radnje dešavaju paralelno, moguće ih je spojiti u jednu rečenicu

He took the gun and put it to her temple
--> Taking the gun, he put it to her temple
.
// kada "radnju jedan" sekvencijalno sledi "radnja dva" (od strane istog subjekta), tada se "radnja jedan" može izraziti participom prezenta.

Feeling nervous, he bit his nails. // (= because he felt nervous...)
// particip prezenta se može koristiti kada izražava razlog radnje (as, since, because, ...)


* particip prezenta



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