Indirektni govor- Reported speech

1

Indirektni govor- Reported speech

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  • saten  Female
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Kada ponavljamo nešto što je neko kazao, možemo doslovno da navedemo njegove reči:

He said: "I like it."
She asked: " Is it ready?"
john said:" Bring me my coat, please."

Ovakav način ponavljanja tuđih reči naziva se upravni ili direktni govor.

Međutim, ako ne navodimo doslovno ono što je neko rekao, već to ponavljamo svojim rečima mi pri tom činimo izvesne izmene. Ovakav način ponavljanja tuđih reči naziva se neupravni ili indirektni govor.


STATEMENTS

Većina ovih izmena su uslovljene logikom situacije i sreću se i u drugim jezicima.


Zbog promene lica koje govori i vremena na koje se radnja odnosi, nastaju sledeće promene:
I Arrow he/she
you Arrow he/she/I
we Arrow they
you ( množina) Arrow they/we
here Arrow there
this/these Arrow that/those
yesterday Arrow the day before/the previous day
tomorrow Arrow the next day/the following day
next week Arrow the next week/the following week
today Arrow that day (ili se izostavlja)
tonight Arrow that evening/that night
ago Arrow before (ili se izostavlja)
(-days ago) Arrow (-days vefore)

Prema pravilima o slaganju vremena u indirektnom govoru nastaju sledeće gramatičke promene:
The present tense Arrow the past tense
am Arrow was
is Arrow was
are Arrow were

The present progressive Arrow the past progressive
am coming Arrow was coming
is doing Arrow was doing
are cleaning Arrow were cleaning

The present perfect simple tense Arrow the past perfect simple tense

have worked Arrow had worked
has written Arrow had written

the present perfect progressive tense Arrow the past perfect progressive tense

have been reading Arrow had been reading
has been writing Arrow had been writing

The past tense Arrow the past perfect simple tense
played Arrow had played
drove Arrow had driven

The past progressive tense Arrow the past perfect progressive tense
was sleeping Arrow had been sleeping
were talking Arrow had been talking

the past perfect simple tense se ne menja!

the past perfect progressive tense might, should, ought to

the future tense Arrow the future-in-the past
will + infinitive Arrow would + infinitive

the future progressive tense Arrow would + be + verb + ing
will be travelling Arrow would be travelling

modal verbs

can Arrow could
may Arrow might
would / could/ might/ should/ought to se ne menja!

Kada je glagol kojim počinje rečenica u indirektnom govoru u prošlom vremenu u sledećoj rečenici ili rečenicama, menjaju se prema pravilima o slaganju vremena u engleskom a rečenice se mogu spojiti veznikom that.

"My brother is coming today."
She said /that/ her brother was coming /that day/. Kazala je da njen brat dolazi tog dana.
"I willll never believe such a thing".
He said that he would never believe such a thing. Rekao je da nikada
neće poverovati u tako nešto

" I was working all afternoon yesterday"
He said that he had been workig all afternoon the day before.

Primedba:
Međutim ako je predmet ili lice u kom se govori u indirektnom govoru pred nama ili smo na mestu na koje se u indirektnom govoru cilja onda se this, here, no, itd ne menja u that, there, then, itd.
Tom said :"This is my book".
Tom said that this/ i. e. the book before us/ was his book.

He said:"The custom is now obsolete".
He said that the custom was now obsolete.

She said:"People can't expect wonders here". /i.e. in this town.
She said that people couldn't expect wonders here.

Kada je glagol kojim se počinje rečenica u indirektnom govoru u prezentu, sadašnjem perfektu, ili futuru vremena u sledećoj rečenici ili rečenicama ne menjaju se.

Tom says:"I'm wrong"
Tom says that he is wrong.

Tom has just told me: "I'm worng".
Tom has just told me that he is wrong.

Tom will tell you:"I'm wrong".
Tom will tell you that he is wrong.
Isto tako ako se u indirektnom govoru izražavaju prirodni zakoni, opšte poznate istine i činjenice ili navike i uobičajene radnje, glagoli mogu ostati u prezentu.

Little Tom said: "The earth is round"
Little Tom said that the earth is round.

QUESTIONS

Ako se indirektnim govorom saopštava tuđe pitanje, onda se umesto glagola koji izražava prost iskaz mora upotrebiti glagol koji izražava pitanje, tj. umesto glagola say ili tell upotrebljavaju se glagoli ask,inquire,wonder ili want to know.
Upitne rečenice u kojima u direktnom govoru nema nikakve upitne reči u indirektnom vezuju se za glavnu rečenicu veznicima if (sa li) ili whether[i].

"Are you staying in this hotel?"
Tom asked me if/whether I was staying in that hotel.

"Has the chief signed the letter?"
Tom wondered whether the chief had signed the letters.


"Will you come to the lecture?"
He asked whether you would come to the lecture.

Primedba:
a) Red reči u indirektnim pitanjima isti je kao u potvrdnoj rečenici, tj. nema inverzije kao u direktnom pitanju.
b) U pitanjima koja počinju nekom upitnom reči- [i]who, when,which,why, what, how,itd.
- ova reč spaja rečenicu kojom počinje indirektni govor sa sledećom.

John said to me:"Why don't you go home?"
John asked me why I didn't go home.

He said to the man:"Where are you going?"
He inquired of the man where he was going.

I said:"Who is going with you?"
I asked who was going with him.

http://fotkica.com/uploads2N/90174_892459133_reported%20speech.xls

COMMANDS

Zapovedni način upotrebljen u direktnom govoru zamenjuje se infinitivom sa to. Pri tom u glavnoj rečenici najčešće se upotrebljavaju glagoli: to tell, to ask, to want, to order, to command

"Shut the door, please."
He asked me to shut the door.

"Don't shout."
She ordered us not to shout.

"Be here in time."
I was told to be there in time.

SAY-TELL

Primedba:

Say

glagol to say upotrebljava se kad navodimo tuđe reči.

He said:"I don't think so."
My mother said:" Bring the soup in, will you?"
She said: " Be careful!"

Glagol say nikada se ne upotrebljava sa imperativom u indirektnom govoru. Umesto njega moramo upotrebiti : tel, want to, ask, order, itd.

He said:"Sit down, please."
I was told to sit down.

She said:"Give me the pencil."
She wanted me to give her the pencil.

He said:"Bring it here."
He ordered me to take it there.

Tell

Glagol tell nikada se ne upotrebljava kada se navode tuđe reči. Zahteva objekat koji mora biti lice.

He said:"I'll come soone."
He told me that he would come soon.

They said:"He has just gone."
they told us that he had just gone.

He said to them:"I can help you, if you like."
He told them that he could help them if they liked.

Vežbanja

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/reported.htm

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech

http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.report.p.htm

Izvor: Gramatika engleskog jezika sa vežbanjima-Ljubica Popović i Vera Mirić



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zdravo jel mi mozete napisati neupravni
she asked me"dID SHE TOLD YOU ANYTHING ABOUT HER PROBLEM DURING YOUR CONVERSATION" HVALA



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  • drejk 
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evo ja da probam mada nisam strucnjak, pa nek saten ispravi...
Prvo mislim da bi recenica trebala ici:
she asked me"DID SHE TELL YOU ANYTHING ABOUT HER PROBLEM DURING YOUR CONVERSATION"
a indirektni bi bio:
she asked me IF SHE TOLD ME ANYTHING ABOUT HER PROBLEM DURING OUR CONVERSATION"

tako bi ja rekao, al moguce i da gresim, sacekajmo saten Smile

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i ja mslim tako hvala ti

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  • drejk 
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Nema na čemu, možda bi moglo čak i:

"she asked me IF I WAS TOLD ANYTHING ABOUT HER PROBLEM DURING OUR CONVERSATION"

Smile

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imam jos nedoumica pa ako mozete odg sto ranije.
ako je glavna rec u proslosti dolazi do slaganja vremena a will ode u would ali glagol iza will ostane ne promjenen kako? obasnite i nadjem par puta da je neki gl prepacen po pravilu o slaganju vremena a neki nije pr.
it is too late to catch zhe train"
he said that it was too late to catch trhe train

zasto catch ostaje catch ako je glavna u proslosti
i jos jedna stavrcica ako pise were singing-da li je had sang po slaganju,
zanimljivo da nalazim da were sleeping ide u had been sleeping a prof kaze da je tu najveca promjena i da ide had i treca kolona had sang odnosno was livinf-had lived?mozete mi to pojasniti.hvala

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  • drejk 
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ovo ce saten morati objasniti Smile da li je zbog passiva ili je jednostavno samo past simple vreme u odnosu na past perfect.

ako ima veze sa pasivom (trpnim stanjem) ako se dobro secam casova engleskog u srednjoj i osnovnoj skoli Smile (davno bese Smile

oriiginalan primer kaze "da je trebalo uhvatiti voz" a drugacije bi bilo da "je voz trebao biti uhvacen"

u drugom primeru bi bilo nesto u fazonu "He said that it was too late for train to be caught"

Slabo se secam gramatike pa sacekajmo strucniji odgovor.

Sto se tice singing, nisam bas najbolje razumeo (nekako mi lakse kroz primere cele recenice Smile kontam da je pitanje o razlikovanju vremena.

Postoje present, past i future tense i svako od njih ima continuous, simple i perfect oblik.

They were siniging (past continuos, radnja u proslosti koja je "trajala" ne zna se da li je zavrsena pesma.. pevali i pevali mozda i dalje pevaju - radnja koja je trajala izvesno vreme u proslosti:)),

Song has been sung (pesma je pevana i otpevana u proslosti, znamo da je zavrsena, valjda past perfect ako ne gresim)

btw, sing se menja u sang ili sung (sung je treca kolona kolko se secam).

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npr. she said "they were singning" jel ispravno
she said that they had sung.

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@milos55555

Ja bih rekla : She said that they had been singing.

Past continuous prelazi u past perfect continuous

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  • drejk 
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valjda continous ide u continous (past continous u perfect contionus)

she said that they had been singing...

tako bi ja rekao...


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