Frazalni glagoli/Phrasal verbs

Frazalni glagoli/Phrasal verbs

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Ova tema služi za upoznavanje sa frazalnim glagolima (phrasal verbs), dakle, sa njihovim objašnjenjima i načinom upotrebe, ali i postavljanjem frazalnih glagola.

Kratka definicija frazalnih glagola:
--> Frazalni glagoli spadaju u grupu višerečnih glagola, koje sačinjava glagol uz dodatak jedne ili više reči.

Možemo izvršiti podelu glagola na:
a)Frazalni (phrasal),
b)Predložni (prepositional) i
c)Frazalno-predložni (phrasal-prepositional)



[1] Način formiranja


a) Frazalni glagoli

Formiraju se na sledeći način: glagol + prilog

Mogu biti:
-Neprelazni (Intransitive) – uz koje ne ide direktni objekat
-Prelazni (Transitive) – uz koje ide direktni objekat

Primer:
Neprelazni – He doesn't like to get up.
Prelazni – They called off the game .

U slučajevima kada su prelazni, možemo ih rasčlaniti na dva dela.

Primer:
They called off the game.
They called the game off.

U situacijama kada je direktni objekat zamenica, frazalni glagol se razdvaja, i između dva dela se ubacuje zamenica.

Primer:
Charles turned on the computer. (Ispravno)
Charles turned the computer on. (Ispravno)
Charles turned it on. (Ispravno)
Charles turned on it. (Neispravno)


b) Predložni glagoli


Formiraju se na sledeći način: glagol + predlog


Pošto predlog mora imati objekat radnje, svi predložni glagoli su sa direktnim objektom.
Međutim predložni glagoli nisu prelazni, odnosno ne rasčlanjavaju se kao što je to slučaj sa frazalnim.

Primer:
Charles is looking after the baby. (Ispravno)
Charles is looking the baby after. (Neispravno)


c) Frazalno-predložni glagoli


Formiraju se na sledeći način: glagol + prilog + predlog

Takođe i frazalno-predložni glagoli moraju imati objekat radnje, jer se završavaju predlogom. Isto tako kao i predložni i frazalno-predložni glagoli se ne rasčlanjuju.

Primer:
John is looking forward to seeing you. (Ispravno)
John is looking seeing you forward to. (Neispravno)
John is looking forward seeing you to. (Neispravno)


Takođe je važno napomenuti da se u zavisnosti od priloga koji se koristi menja i samo značenje glagola koji je u osnovi.

Nakon razjašnjenih osnova, sledi par primera sa frazalnim glagolima:

get along (with) --> be on good terms; work well with [biti u dobrim odnosima/dobro sarađivati]
Primer:
I get along (well) with my mother-in-law. [Ja se dobro slažem sa svekrvom]

get at --> imply [nagovestiti]
Primer:
What exactly are you trying to get at? [Šta tačno pokušavaš da mi nagovestiš?]

get away --> escape [pobeći]
Primer:
The robbers got away in a black car. [Pljačkaši su pobegli u crnom autu.]

get by --> manage to cope or to survive [izdržati/preživeti]
Primer:
It's difficult to get by on a low salary. [Teško je preživljavati sa malom platom.]

get in --> enter [ući]
Primer:
How did the burglar get in? [Kako je provalnik ušao?]

get into (+noun) --> enter [ući u]
Primer:
How did the burglar get into the house? [Kako je provalnik ušao u kuću?]

get off --> 1) leave (bus, train, plane) [izaći iz autobusa/voza/aviona] 2) remove [odstraniti]
Primer:
1) You should get off the bus at Trafalgar Square. [Trebalo bi da izađeš iz autobusa kod Trga Trafalgar.]
2) She can't get the stain off her sweater. [Ona ne može da odstrani fleku sa svog džempera.]

get on --> board (bus, train, plane) [ukrcati se/ući u autobus/voz/avion]
Primer:
You can pay when you get on the bus. [Možeš da platiš kada uđeš u autobus.]

get on with (something) --> continue to do; make progress [nastaviti sa radom]
Primer:
Be quiet and get on with your homework. [Ćuti, i nastavi da radiš domaći zadatak.]

get on (well) with (somebody) --> have a good relationship with [biti u dobrom odnosu sa nekim]
Primer:
I get on very well with my colleagues. [Dobro se slažem sa svojim kolegama.]

get out --> leave [otići/izaći]
Primer:
How did he get out? [Kako je izašao?]

get out of (+noun) --> leave [otići/izaći iz]
Primer:
How did he get out of the house? [Kako je otišao iz kuće?]

get out of --> avoid doing something [izbeći nešto da se uradi]
Primer:
Some husbands manage to get out of doing any housework. [Neki muškarci uspevaju da izbegnu da urade kućne poslove.]

get over --> recover from (illness, disappointment) [oporaviti se/ozdraveti]
Primer:
My grandmother had pneumonia but she got over it. [Moja baba je imala zapalenje pluća, ali se oporavila.]

get rid of --> eliminate [eliminisati/odstraniti/otarasiti]
Primer:
It's difficult to get rid of old habits. [Teško je otarasiti se starih navika.]

get together --> meet each other [sastati se sa nekim/videti se sa nekim]
Primer:
Let's get together for lunch on saturday. [Hajde da izađemo na ručak u subotu.]

get up --> rise, leave bed [ustati/napustiti krevet]
Primer:
I usually get up at 7 o'clock. [Obično ustajem u 7 sati.]



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U cilju boljeg pamćenja frazalnih glagola, organizovaću ovu indeksnu poruku sa sledećim formatom (abecedno uređenim):
Citat:reč na srpskom jeziku - non phrasal verb (+ 1 ili 2 sinonima, opciono) - frazalni glagoli (+ primer, opciono)

Napomena:
- u ovom spisku neće biti obrađeni svi frazalni glagoli u temi,
- primeri i frazali koje budem pisao, biće prema Cambridge dictionary,
- sadržaj će biti dug, pa se zbog tog nisam odlučio za tabelarni prikaz (trebalo bi non stop da praviti HTML tagove za nove redove i kolone),
- ovo treba da posluži samo kao referenca, jel'te, kao mali podsetnik (sve novo što vidite u temi, konsultujte sa literaturom).


~


biti dobar (u dobrom odnosu) sa nekim - have a good relationship with - Get on (well) with (somebody) (I get on very well with my colleagues ; "dobar sam" sa kolegama)

čekati - wait - hold on (1) (Hold on please. I'll put you through to Mr. Brown.)

čvrsto se držati - grip tightly - hold on (2) (She held on to the railing as she crossed the bridge).

distribuirati (podeliti/razdeliti) - distribute:
a) hand out (Samples will be handed out at the end of the class ; primeri će biti podeljeni na kraju časa.)
b) give out (Please give out the photocopies to everyone.)

doneti - bring - make with sth (Make with the money bags, baby).

izaći iz, "sići sa" (autobusa/voza/aviona)[/b] - Leave (bus, train, plane) - get off (You should get off the bus at Trafalgar Square ; trebalo bi da izađeš iz autobusa kod Trga Trafalgar)

izbeći sth - avoid sth - get out of (Some husbands manage to get out of doing any housework. ; neki muškarci uspevaju da izbegnu da urade kućne poslove.)

izdržati/preživeti - cope/survive - Get by (It's difficult to get by on a low salary ; teško je preživljavati sa malom platom.)

nagovestiti - imply - get at (What exactly are you trying to get at? ; šta tačno pokušavaš da mi nagovestiš?)

nastaviti sa radom - continue to do - get on with sth (Be quiet and get on with your homework ; budi tih, i nastavi da radiš domaći zadatak.)

odstraniti sth - remove sth - get sth off (She can't get the stain off her sweater ; ne može da odstrani fleku sa svog džempera.)

oporaviti se/ozdraviti - recover from illness/disappointment - Get over (My grandmother had pneumonia but she got over it ; moja baka je imala zapaljenje pluća, ali se oporavila.)

otarasiti - eliminate - get rid of (It's difficult to get rid of old habits. ; Teško je otarasiti se starih navika.)

otići/izaći - leave - get out (How did he get out? ; kako je izašao?)

otići/izaći iz - leave - get out of sth (How did he get out of the house? ; kako je otišao iz kuće?)

planirati - make plans/arrangements - think ahead (Just concentrate on today and try not to think too far ahead.)

pobeći - escape - get away (The robbers got away in a black car ; pljačkaši su pobegli ("izvukli su se") u crnom autu.)

pokvariti/otkazati - stop working - broke down (My car broke down last night.)

predati (u smislu uručiti) - submit - hand in (All application forms must be handed in before the end of the month. ; Forme se moraju predati pre kraja meseca.)

pripremiti - prepare - think out (He obviously hadn't thought it out properly before starting. It was very well thought out.)

sagledati sth - examine sth - look into sth (We're looking into the possibility of merging the two departments)

sastati se sa sb ("videti se sa sb") - meet each other - get together (Let's get together for lunch on Saturday ; hajde da izađemo na ručak u subotu.)

setiti se - recall - think back (When I think back on what I did, I feel embarrassed.)

slagati se/dobro sarađivati - work well with (be on good terms) - get along (with) (I get along well with my mother-in-law ; dobro se slažem sa svekrvom)

ući - enter - get in (How did the burglar get in? ; kako je provalnik ušao?)

ući u - enter - get into sth (How did the burglar get into the house? ; kako je provalnik ušao u kuću?)

ućutati - stop talking - shut up (I told him to stop talking).

ulizivati se - toady- make up to sb (Have you seen the disgusting way she makes up to the boss?).

ustati/napustiti krevet - rise, leave bed - get up (I usually get up at 7 o'clock. ; obično ustajem u 7 sati.)

vratiti se - return - call back (She said she'd call back later to pick up that report). + Napomena




Legenda:

sth - something (nešto)
sb - somebody (neko(g))
(1), (2), ... , (x) - ako frazalni glagol može da ima više značenja


Credits: Srećko81



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Članak je proširen/ažuriran.

Nadam se da će biti zanimljivih frazalnih glagola i od čitalaca Smile
Karakteristika da se u zavisnosti od priloga --> menja značenje glagola (pa i prevod), otežava učenje frazalnih glagola.

Uz ovu temu ćemo naučiti neke nove frazalne glagole i/ili osvežiti znanje.

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Evo jos nekih primera:


hand out --> distribute [Distribuirati / Podeliti]
Primer:
Samples will be handed out at the end of the class. [Primeri ce biti podeljeni na kraju casa.]


hand in --> submit (report, homework) [Uruciti / Predati]
Primer:
All application forms must be handed in before the end of the month. [Forme se moraju predati pre kraja meseca.]


hold on --> 1) wait 2) grip tightly [ 1) Cekati / 2) Drzati se cvrsto.]
Primer:
1) 'Hold on please. I'll put you through to Mr. Brown." [Sacekajte molim vas....]
2) She held on to the railing as she crossed the bridge. [Ona se drzala...]

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think of - misliti na ... (primaran fokus na neki objekat)
--> when you think of something, it (as a whole) is your chief focus:
When news of the fire was announced, he could only think of this family.
How could you do such a thing? Didn't you think of me?

Idea "think of" also means to consider the possibility of doing something.
I'm thinking of going to Portugal for the holidays.
He's thinking of starting his own business
.


think about - misliti na ... (fokus slabijeg intenziteta)
--> When you think about something, your focus is less intense:
In your last year at school, there are many things to think about - work, money, where to live.


think ahead - planirati
--> to make plans or arrangements for the future.
Just concentrate on today and try not to think too far ahead.


think back - setiti se
--> to look back over things that have happened.
When I think back on what I did, I feel embarrassed.


think out - pripremiti
--> to prepare or plan something fully before you start doing it.
He obviously hadn't thought it out properly before starting.
It was very well thought out. He had obviously spent a lot of time on it.


think over - razmotriti, promisliti ... <<imamo bazu informacija>>
--> to consider something carefully before deciding.
We've got all the information we need. We'd like to think it over.
I just needed a bit of time to think it over before I told him what I had decided
.


think through - promisliti ... << mala baza informacija, oslanjanje na rezon >>
--> to consider something carefully with all the possible consequences.
It sounds like a good idea but we need to think it through to see if it will work.
I haven't had time to think it through at all. I don’t know what will happen
.


think up - smisliti
--> create something using your imagination.
I don't want to go to their party but I can't think up an excuse.
We'll have to think up a very good reason why we didn't make the deadline
.

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Napisano: 23 Dec 2013 20:53

Shut up ućutkati, prestati govoriti
I told him to stop talking.

Broke down pokvariti, otkazati
My car (broke down)stopped working last night.

Gone up rasti, skočiti, popeti se
Prices (gone up)have increased a lot recently.

Give out razdeliti
Please (give out)distribute the photocopies to everyone.

Looking into ispitati
The police (looking into) investigating the crime.

Run out of- ponestati, istrošiti.....To run out of something is to use all of it so that there is nothing left.
I ran out of petrol on my way to work this morning.

Wear out iznositi, poderati, pohabati...Become too old to use.
''To wear out means to make someone feel very tired, as in ‘She was worn out from looking after her elderly mother’ or ‘You need to slow down or you’ll wear yourself out’. It can also mean to use something a lot so that it no longer works or can no longer be used, as in ‘He’s played that old Beatles record so many times he’s worn it out’.''

Dopuna: 25 Dec 2013 22:07

Koristan link vezano za frazalne glagole....: )

http://www.phrasalverbdemon.com/dictionaryf.htm

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Imamo novu sekciju ove teme:
http://www.mycity.rs/Engleski-jezik/Frazalni-glagoli-Phrasal-verbs.html#p1671147

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cut something off - ukloniti (odrezati/prerezati) ostrim predmetom - The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured.
cut something off - obustaviti pruzanje (usluge) - The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill.
cut someone off - ukloniti iz testamenta - My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried.
cut something out - izrezati (obicno u vezi sa makazama i papirom) - I cut this ad out of the newspaper.

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