Zanimljive konstrukcije

Zanimljive konstrukcije

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Nisam znao kako najbolje da nazovem ovu temu, ali u njoj ću da predstavljam različite konstrukcije srednjeg i naprednog nivoa u engleskom jeziku.

Takođe, može da sadrži i izvesne konstrukcije koje su baš specifične za engleski jezik.




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INDEKS


- Napredna upotreba kondicionala: LINK

- Iskazimo zelje: LINK

- Sta da upotrebim posle glagola: LINK

- Malo o upravnom govoru: LINK



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Napredna upotreba kondicionala




If I had got up earlier, I would be more concentrated today.
If I had known the grammar better, I wouldn't be coming to these classes now.
U ovom primeru se vidi upotreba "mixed conditionals" (III + II). Odnosi se na situaciju koja se ispoljava u sadašnjosti (now, today).


If I had been driving more slowly, I wouldn't have hit the tree.
U ovom primeru se vidi da se za kondicional tipa III može koristiti i Past Perfect Continuous u IF rečenici.



Davanje komandi


If your shoes are dirty, clean them
U primeru se vidi da se u ovom slučaju koristi Present Simple Tense u obe rečenice (i glavna i zavisna)

Should you be there, say hello to him
// još jedna zanimljiva konstrukcija - Ako budeš bio tamo, pozdravi ga (sugestija, imperativ)



Veznici


Sledeće veznike možete zateći da se koriste u kondicionalu:
Citat:- If
- Even if
- As long as
- Provided that
- Supposing
- Suppose
- Unless (= if not)
- On condition that
- Imagine that
- In case (* koristi se samo u prvom kondicionalu Exclamation )



Primeri:

Supposing people could live for two hundred years, how many would really want to? // ako pretpostavimo...

Even if people could live for two hundred years, how many would really want to?

Imagine that people could live for two hundred years, how many would really want to?



Izbegavanje IF


He would never have become famous had he been a typical scientist.
Isto je što i: "He would never have become famous scientist if he had been a typical scientist"

I would be delighted for him to participate in the research were he to agree to share the costs.
Ispravno je i ovo: "I would be delighted for him to participate in the research as long as he would agree to share the costs"



Budimo ljubazni


Future Simple Tense se može upotrebiti u kondicionalu da se podvuče ljubaznost:

I'll see if the doctor is free if you wait here.
// by the book Mr. Green

I'll see if the doctor is free if you will wait here.
// more polite way



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Iskažimo želje




I wish I had an angel LINK
//prevodi se kao: "Želio bih da imam anđela".
Idea Uočimo da se perfekt u primeru prevodi sa našim prezentom.

Takođe, istu stvar možemo reći i kao: I wish to have an angel.
Idea S tim da "to + infinitve" konstrukciju možemo napisati samo ako se odosi na isti subjekat!

Ukoliko se odnosi na isti subjekat, oba gore navedena primera su ispravno zapisana.


E sad, pogledajmo sledeće primere:

I wish she had an angel (correct)
I wish she to have an angel (incorrect) Exclamation
// ne odnosi se na isti subjekat Exclamation

Po analogiji da Past Simple Tense u primerima prevodimo sa našim prezentom
--> Past Perfect Tense ćemo prevesti sa prošlim vremenom. Dakle:

He wishes he were more intelligent (prezent!)
He wishes he had been more intelligent (prošlost)


Idea Glagol wish možemo koristiti da opišemo promenu nečijeg stanja/situacije; pogledajmo primer:
I wish you wouldn't bite your nails.


Sledeći glagoli se ponašaju kao glagol wish:

Citat:- If only
- It's time
- It's high time (krajnje je vreme)



Primeri:

Who do you wish to speak to?
If only there wasn't so little time left.
If only we knew in advance what question would be asked.
It's time we went home (ili : It's time to go home)



Arrow Glagol hope ne spada u ovu kategoriju; pomenimo i ovu konstrukciju:
I hope to get the job! (budućnost)
ili: I hope that I get the job (budućnost)


Arrow Glagol suggest ima dve forme:

I suggest (that) you (should) visit MyCity forum.
He suggested visiting a forum.



Definišimo pravila konstrukcije za svaki od ovih glagola:

Citat:[1] I wish + to + infinitive (the same subject)
[2] I wish + <subject> + Past Simple Tense (present time)
[3] I wish + <subject> + Past Perfect Tense (past time)
[4] I wish + <subject> + would + infinitive (change of somebody else's situation)

[1] If only + <subject> + Past Simple Tense (present time)
[2] If only + <subject> + Past Perfect Tense (past time)

[1] It's (high) time + to + infinitive (the same subject) <==> It's (high) time I/We went home Exclamation
[2] It's (high) time + <subject> + Past Simple Tense (present time)
[3] It's (high) time + <subject> + Past Perfect Tense (past time)

[1] I hope + to + infinitive (the same subject)
[2] I hope + <subject> + Present Simple Tense (future time)

[1] I suggest + (that) + <subject> + (should) + infinitive
[2] I suggest + 'ing'-form

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Šta da upotrebim posle glagola?




Ovde ćemo da govorimo u smislu kategorisanja glagola po kriterijumu - šta može ići posle njih.
Biće date liste nekih najčešćih glagola u svakoj kategorija i lista može proširivana povremeno od strane uredništva.



1. Kategorija


U ovu kategoriju ćemo da ubacimo sve glagole posle kojih ide:
a) infinitiv + ING,
b) ili imenica/zamenica.

Neki od često korištenih glagola su:

Citat:Dislike
Can't stand
Miss
Mind
Avoid
Fancy
Enjoy
Risk
Be worth



Primeri:

I dislike having to get up early.
Would you mind lowering your voice just a little bit? (A)
Would you mind if you stop talking? (B)
I enjoy reading books.




2. Kategorija


U ovu kategoriju ćemo da ubacimo sve glagole posle kojih ide:
a) infinitiv + ING,
b) ili imenica/zamenica,
c) ili that clause.


Neki od često korištenih glagola su:

Citat:
Admit
Deny
Imagine
Suggest
Recollect
Report
Consider


Primeri:

Jack admitted stealing the money (A)
When accused of steling the money, Jack admitted it (B)
Jack admitted that he had stolen the money (C)




3. Kategorija


U ovu kategoriju ćemo da ubacimo sve glagole posle kojih ide:
a) infinitiv glagla.
b) imenica/zamenica

Neki od često korištenih glagola su:

Citat:
Afford
Appeal
Ask
Choose
Fail
Happen
Long
Manage
Offer
Prepare
Refuse
Tend
Wait
Want


Primeri:

I managed to call him several times last night (A)
You should prepare for this possibility by wearing or carrying on the items that are essential to your Kilimanjaro climb (B)
I know you want me to steal that toy.




4. Kategorija


U ovu kategoriju ćemo da ubacimo sve glagole posle kojih ide:
a) infinitiv
b) that clause
* uz neke oblike moze stati i imenica/zamenica

Neki od često korištenih glagola su:

Citat:
Agree
Arrange
Decide
Demand
Desire
Expect
Hope
Intend
Learn
Plan
Pretend
Promise
Seem
Threaten
Wish



Primeri:

He agreed to join Agamemnon's war of revenge against Troy (A)
He arranged that the quality officer and one other personnel member participate in an internal auditor course (B)

* He promised me (that) he would hoover the living room, but when I got home it wasn't done!
* I wish you a Merry Christmas.




5. Kategorija


Ova kategorija je specifična jer se u zavisnosti od toga da li ide
a) infinitiv
b) ili infinitiv + ING

... menja značenje rečenice

Za sada mogu da se setim samo glagola STOP.

Primeri:

He stopped smoking
// ovde se radi o čoveku koji više nije pušač (prestao je da puši pre nekog vremena)

He stopped to smoke
// ovde se radi o čoveku koji jeste pušač (zaustavio se da zapali pljugu)

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Malo o upravnom govoru




Must se ne menja u upravnom govoru (indirect speech) kada se odnosi na 3 stvari:

1) logical conclusion (must be)
2) strong obligation (must)
3) prohibition (mustn't)



[1] Logical conclusion


Dakle, konstrukcija "must be" se odnosi na zakljucivanje:

Primeri:

She must be an expert
She can't be an expert (negative form) Exclamation

You must be joking!
You can't be telling the truth!




[2] Strong obligation


Kada govorimo o obavezama, možemo da razlikujemo sledece:
a) Internal obligation --> must
b) External obligation --> have to
c) Strong obligation --> must

Primeri:

I must buy some meat because I'm hungry (a)
I have to do my homework (b)


I interne i eksterne obaveze se u upravnom govoru (ali i u budućnosti i prošlosti Exclamation ), grade sa have to.

Primeri:

She said that she had to buy some meat that day because she was hungry (a) : (must --> have to)

Za razliku od a) i b), strong obligation se, kako smo rekli, ne menja u upravnom govoru:

Darth Vader: "You must obey me!"
--> He said that I must obey him
(dakle, nema promene u 'have to')



[3] Prohibition


Primer:

Mom: "You mustn't watch so much television!"
She said that I mustn't watch so much television
.




BONUS: tabela promene modalnih glagola u upravnom govoru:


original utterancereported sentence
can (present reference)could
can (future reference)would be able to
may (uncertainty)might
may (permission with present reference)was allowed to
may (permission with future reference)would be allowed to
willwould
needn’tdidn’t need to/didn’t have to
must (internal & external)had to
must (logical & strong & prohibition)must
couldcould
wouldwould
mightmight
mustn’tmustn’t
had betterhad better
ought toought to
shouldshould
used toused to

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Shall vs. Will



I shall i will se koriste i u američkom i u britanskom engleskom.

Shall se u britanskom engleskom koristi češće i u svakodnevnom govoru, dok se u Americi u svakodnevnom govoru koristi retko, ali zato se još uvek dosta koristi u pravnim dokumentima; takođe pisci koriste pri pisanju knjiga i/ili poezije. Amerikanci shall koriste i kada hoće da se izraze na prijatniji/ljubazniji način, na primer: "Shall we dance?", "Shall I take your coat?"...

Što se tiče pravila korišćenja shall i will:

Tradicionalno u britanskom engleskom shall se koristi pri gradnji budućeg vremena za prvo lice jednine i množine (I; we); dok se will koristi za drugo i treće lice jednine i množine (you; he; she; it; they)

Međutim, kada želimo da izrazimo čvrsto opredeljenje/odlučnost ili naredbu/zapovest onda su uloge okrenute, tako da se will koristi za prvo lice jednine i množine (I; we); a shall se koristi za drugo i treće lice jednine i množine (you; he; she; it; they)

Tabelarni prikaz:

Izjava, izražavanje cilja ili činjenicePrimer:
Jednina I shall I shall be in Belgrade tomorrow.
you will You will see a red sign on the right.
he; she; it will He will be wearing blue.
Množina we shall We shall not arrive at the same time.
you will You will find him in his office.
they will They will arrive late.
 
Izražavanje čvrstog opredeljenja/ odlučnosti ili naređenja/zapovesti Primer:
Jednina I will I will not tolerate such behaviour.
you shall You shall be sorry for this.
he; she; it shall It shall be done.
Množina we will We will not interfere.
you shall You shall go to the store.
they shall They shall give two weeks’ notice.


U suštini pri praktičnoj primeni shall i will mogu međusono da se zamenjuju, a to je postalo opšteprihvaćeno i u britanskom i u američkom engleskom.

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oplemenjujuce iskustvo! Pa tek sad mi je jasno ono : It shall be done ili They shall...od sada samo zapovednickim tonom! Smile

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Нашао сам две занимљиве реченице.
It's too nice an afternoon to stay at home.
You are much too kind to me.

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